Geography

The following table lists the world's oceans and seas, according to area and average depth, including the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Arctic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Bering sea, and more.
 
Name Area Average
depth
Greatest known
depth
Place of
greatest known depth
sq. mi. sq. km ft. m ft. m
Pacific Ocean 60,060,700 155,557,000 13,215 4,028 36,198 11,033 Mariana Trench
Atlantic Ocean 29,637,900 76,762,000 12,880 3,926 30,246 9,219 Puerto Rico Trench
Indian Ocean 26,469,500 68,556,000 13,002 3,963 24,460 7,455 Sunda Trench
Southern Ocean1 7,848,300 20,327,000 13,100–16,400 4,000–5,000 23,736 7,235 South Sandwich Trench
Arctic Ocean 5,427,000 14,056,000 3,953 1,205 18,456 5,625 77°45'N; 175°W
Mediterranean Sea2 1,144,800 2,965,800 4,688 1,429 15,197 4,632 Off Cape Matapan, Greece
Caribbean Sea 1,049,500 2,718,200 8,685 2,647 22,788 6,946 Off Cayman Islands
South China Sea 895,400 2,319,000 5,419 1,652 16,456 5,016 West of Luzon
Bering Sea 884,900 2,291,900 5,075 1,547 15,659 4,773 Off Buldir Island
Gulf of Mexico 615,000 1,592,800 4,874 1,486 12,425 3,787 Sigsbee Deep
Okhotsk Sea 613,800 1,589,700 2,749 838 12,001 3,658 146°10'E; 46°50'N
East China Sea 482,300 1,249,200 617 188 9,126 2,782 25°16'N; 125°E
Hudson Bay 475,800 1,232,300 420 128 600 183 Near entrance
Japan Sea 389,100 1,007,800 4,429 1,350 12,276 3,742 Central Basin
Andaman Sea 308,000 797,700 2,854 870 12,392 3,777 Off Car Nicobar Island
North Sea 222,100 575,200 308 94 2,165 660 Skagerrak
Red Sea 169,100 438,000 1,611 491 7,254 2,211 Off Port Sudan
Baltic Sea 163,000 422,200 180 55 1,380 421 Off Gotland
There may be lost pirate treasure buried in the coves of the Caribbean Islands. There are certainly lost treasures of gold and jewels aboard early Spanish sailing ships sunk at sea. But not all treasure is lost. The earth is full of found treasures. Here are just a few of them.

Bauxite: This mineral is used to make aluminium. Guinea in Africa is rich with it.
 
Cashews: These delicious nuts grow on trees in Mozambique, a country in southeast Africa.
 
Chewing Gum: The sapodilla tree of Central America is the source of chicle, which is what puts the chew in chewing gum.
 
Chocolate: The seed of the cacao tree, which is found on many Caribbean islands, is used to make chocolate.
 
Chromium: This metal is used to make stainless steel. There is plenty of chromium in Zimbabwe, Africa.
 
Copper: One of the richest “copper belts” in the world is in Zambia, Africa.
 
Cork: Bulletin boards and stoppers in wine bottles are both made of cork, which is the bark of the cork oak tree in Spain.
 
Diamonds: Namibia, Africa, supplies the most valuable diamonds of the 18 countries in southern Africa rich with diamonds.
 
Emeralds: Colombia produces the most emeralds of any country in South America.
 
Gold: The world's largest gold mine is in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.
 
Mahogany: The trees that supply this beautiful wood grow in Central America.
 
Nitrates: This mineral used to preserve foods is found in the desert of Chile.
 
Perfume: In the south of France, flowers are grown for their oils, which are used in making perfumes.
 
Seaweed: Off the coast of Japan, seaweed is harvested to eat or to flavour foods.
 
Sugar: Sugarcane is grown in many countries in Central America and the Caribbean Islands.
 
Vanilla: There wouldn't be vanilla ice cream without the vanilla bean. More than half the world's vanilla is grown in Madagascar.
 
Wool: Most of the world's wool is supplied by the sheep of Australia.
 
Country     City           
Afghanistan     Kabul        
Albania     Tirana                 
Algeria     Algiers                
Andorra     Andorra la Vella
Angola     Luanda
Antigua/  Barbuda     St. John's
Argentina     Buenos Aires
Armenia     Yerevan
Australia     Canberra
Austria     Vienna
Azerbaijan     Baku
       
Bahamas     Nassau
Bahrain     Al-Manámah
Bangladesh     Dhaka
Barbados     Bridgetown
Belarus     Mensk (Minsk)
Belgium     Brussels
Belize     Belmopan
Benin     Porto-Novo
Bhutan     Thimphu
Bolivia     Sucre
Bosnia and Herzegovina     Sarajevo
Botswana     Gaborone
Brazil     Brasília
Brunei     Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgaria     Sofia
Burkina Faso     Ouagadougou
Burundi     Bujumbura
       
Cambodia     Phnom Penh
Cameroon     Yaoundé
Canada     Ottawa, Ontario
Cape Verde     Praia
Central African Republic     Bangui
Chad     N'Djamena
Chile     Santiago
China     Beijing
Colombia     Santafé de Bogotá
Comoros     Moroni (on Grande Comoro)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the     Kinshasa
Congo, Republic of     Brazzaville
Costa Rica     San José
Côte d'Ivoire     Yamoussoukro
Croatia     Zagreb
Cuba     Havana
Cyprus     Lefkosia
Czech Republic     Prague
       
Denmark     Copenhagen
Djibouti     Djibouti
Dominica     Roseau
Dominican Republic     Santo Domingo
       
East Timor     Dili
Ecuador     Quito
Egypt     Cairo
El Salvador     San Salvador
Equatorial Guinea     Malabo
Eritrea     Asmara
Estonia     Tallinn
Ethiopia     Addis Ababa
       
Fiji     Suva (on Viti Levu)
Finland     Helsinki
France     Paris
       
Gabon     Libreville
Gambia     Banjul
Georgia     Tbilisi
Germany     Berlin
Ghana     Accra
Greece     Athens
Grenada     St. George's
Guatemala     Guatemala City
Guinea     Conakry
Guinea-Bissau     Bissau
Guyana     Georgetown
       
Haiti     Port-au-Prince
Honduras     Tegucigalpa
Hungary     Budapest
       
Iceland     Reykjavik
India     New Delhi
Indonesia     Jakarta
Iran     Tehran
Iraq     Baghdad
Ireland     Dublin
Israel     Jerusalem
Italy     Rome
       
Jamaica     Kingston
Japan     Tokyo
Jordan     Amman
       
Kazakhstan     Astana
Kenya     Nairobi
Kiribati     Tarawa
Korea, North     Pyongyang
Korea, South     Seoul
Kosovo     Pristina
Kuwait     Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan     Bishkek (formerly Frunze)
       
Laos     Vientiane
Latvia     Riga
Lebanon     Beirut
Lesotho     Maseru
Liberia     Monrovia
Libya     Tripoli
Liechtenstein     Vaduz
Lithuania     Vilnius
Luxembourg     Luxembourg
       
Macedonia     Skopje
Madagascar     Antananarivo
Malawi     Lilongwe
Malaysia     Kuala Lumpur
Maldives     Malé
Mali     Bamako
Malta     Valletta
Marshall Islands     Majuro
Mauritania     Nouakchott
Mauritius     Port Louis
Mexico     Mexico City
Micronesia     Palikir
Moldova     Chisinau
Monaco     Monaco
Mongolia     Ulaan Baatar
Montenegro     Podgorica (administrative capital),; Cetinje (capital city),
Morocco     Rabat
Mozambique     Maputo
Myanmar     Rangoon (Yangon)
       
Namibia     Windhoek. Summer capital: Swakopmund
Nauru     Yaren
Nepal     Kathmandu
Netherlands     Amsterdam (official); The Hague (administrative capital)
New Zealand     Wellington
Nicaragua     Managua
Niger     Niamey
Nigeria     Abuja
Norway     Oslo
       
Oman     Muscat
Pakistan     Islamabad
       
Palau     Koror
Palestinian State (proposed)     Undetermined
Panama     Panama City
Papua New Guinea     Port Moresby
Paraguay     Asunción
Peru     Lima
Philippines     Manila
Poland     Warsaw
Portugal     Lisbon
       
Qatar     Doha
       
Romania     Bucharest
Russia     Moscow
Rwanda     Kigali
       
St. Kitts and Nevis     Basseterre (on St. Kitts
St. Lucia     Castries
St. Vincent and the Grenadines     Kingstown
Samoa     Apia
San Marino     San Marino
São Tomé and Príncipe     São Tomé
Saudi Arabia     Riyadh
Senegal     Dakar
Serbia     Belgrade
Seychelles     Victoria
Sierra Leone     Freetown
Singapore     Singapore
Slovakia     Bratislava
Slovenia     Ljubljana
Solomon Islands     Honiara (on Guadalcanal
Somalia     Mogadishu
South Africa     Pretoria; Legislative capital and largest city: Cape Town . Judicial capital: Bloemfontein. No decision has been made to relocate the seat of government. South Africa is demarcated into nine provinces, consisting of the Gauteng, Northern Province, Mpumalanga, North West, KwaZulu/Natal, Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Northern Cape, and Free State. Each province has its own capital
South Sudan, Republic of     Juba
Spain     Madrid
Sri Lanka     Colombo. Legislative and judicial capital: Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte,
Sudan     Khartoum
Suriname     Paramaribo
Swaziland     Mbabane; Royal and legislative capital: Lobamba, circa
Sweden     Stockholm
Switzerland     Bern
Syria     Damascus
       
Taiwan     Taipei
Tajikistan     Dushanbe
Tanzania     Dodoma
Thailand     Bangkok
Togo     Lomé
Tonga     Nuku'alofa
Trinidad and Tobago     Port-of-Spain
Tunisia     Tunis
Turkey     Ankara
Turkmenistan     Ashgabat
Tuvalu     Funafuti
       
Uganda     Kampala
Ukraine     Kyiv (Kiev)
United Arab Emirates     Abu Dhabi
United Kingdom     London
United States     Washington
Uruguay     Montevideo
Uzbekistan     Tashkent
       
Vanuatu     Port Vila
Venezuela     Caracas
Vietnam     Hanoi
       
Western Sahara (proposed state)     El Aaiun
       
Yemen     Sanaá
       
Zambia     Lusaka
Zimbabwe     Harare
The following table lists the highest mountain peaks of the world including mountain name, mountain range, vertical height, and location, according to the National Geographic Society.
 

Mountain peak
Range Location Height
ft. m
Everest1 Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 29,035 8,850
K2 (Godwin Austen) Karakoram Pakistan/China 28,250 8,611
Kanchenjunga Himalayas India/Nepal 28,169 8,586
Lhotse I Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 27,940 8,516
Makalu I Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 27,766 8,463
Cho Oyu Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 26,906 8,201
Dhaulagiri Himalayas Nepal 26,795 8,167
Manaslu I Himalayas Nepal 26,781 8,163
Nanga Parbat Himalayas Pakistan 26,660 8,125
Annapurna Himalayas Nepal 26,545 8,091
Gasherbrum I Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,470 8,068
Broad Peak Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,400 8,047
Gasherbrum II Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,360 8,035
Shishma Pangma (Gosainthan) Himalayas Tibet 26,289 8,013
Annapurna II Himalayas Nepal 26,041 7,937
Gyachung Kang Himalayas Nepal 25,910 7,897
Disteghil Sar Karakoram Pakistan 25,858 7,882
Himalchuli Himalayas Nepal 25,801 7,864
Nuptse Himalayas Nepal 25,726 7,841
Nanda Devi Himalayas India 25,663 7,824
Masherbrum Karakoram Kashmir2 25,660 7,821
Rakaposhi Karakoram Pakistan 25,551 7,788
Kanjut Sar Karakoram Pakistan 25,461 7,761
Kamet Himalayas India/Tibet 25,446 7,756
Namcha Barwa Himalayas Tibet 25,445 7,756
Gurla Mandhata Himalayas Tibet 25,355 7,728
Ulugh Muztagh Kunlun Tibet 25,340 7,723
Kungur Muztagh Ata China 25,325 7,719
Tirich Mir Hindu Kush Pakistan 25,230 7,690
Saser Kangri Karakoram India 25,172 7,672
Makalu II Himalayas Nepal 25,120 7,657
Minya Konka (Gongga Shan) Daxue Shan China 24,900 7,590
Kula Kangri Himalayas Bhutan 24,783 7,554
Chang-tzu Himalayas Tibet 24,780 7,553
Muztagh Ata Muztagh Ata China 24,757 7,546
Skyang Kangri Himalayas Kashmir 24,750 7,544
Ismail Samani Peak (formerly Communism Peak) Pamirs Tajikistan 24,590 7,495
Jongsong Peak Himalayas Nepal 24,472 7,459
Pobeda Peak Tien Shan Kyrgyzstan 24,406 7,439
Sia Kangri Himalayas Kashmir 24,350 7,422
Haramosh Peak Karakoram Pakistan 24,270 7,397
Istoro Nal Hindu Kush Pakistan 24,240 7,388
Tent Peak Himalayas Nepal 24,165 7,365
Chomo Lhari Himalayas Tibet/Bhutan 24,040 7,327
Chamlang Himalayas Nepal 24,012 7,319
Kabru Himalayas Nepal 24,002 7,316
Alung Gangri Himalayas Tibet 24,000 7,315
Baltoro Kangri Himalayas Kashmir 23,990 7,312
Muztagh Ata (K-5) Kunlun China 23,890 7,282
Mana Himalayas India 23,860 7,273
Baruntse Himalayas Nepal 23,688 7,220
Nepal Peak Himalayas Nepal 23,500 7,163
Amne Machin Kunlun China 23,490 7,160
Gauri Sankar Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 23,440 7,145
Badrinath Himalayas India 23,420 7,138
Nunkun Himalayas Kashmir 23,410 7,135
Lenin Peak Pamirs Tajikistan/Kyrgyzstan 23,405 7,134
Pyramid Himalayas Nepal 23,400 7,132
Api Himalayas Nepal 23,399 7,132
Pauhunri Himalayas India/China 23,385 7,128
Trisul Himalayas India 23,360 7,120
Korzhenevski Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 23,310 7,105
Kangto Himalayas Tibet 23,260 7,090
Nyainqentanglha Nyainqentanglha Shan China 23,255 7,088
Trisuli Himalayas India 23,210 7,074
Dunagiri Himalayas India 23,184 7,066
Revolution Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 22,880 6,974
Aconcagua Andes Argentina 22,834 6,960
Ojos del Salado Andes Argentina/Chile 22,664 6,908
Bonete Andes Argentina/Chile 22,546 6,872
Ama Dablam Himalayas Nepal 22,494 6,856
Tupungato Andes Argentina/Chile 22,310 6,800
Moscow Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 22,260 6,785
Pissis Andes Argentina 22,241 6,779
Mercedario Andes Argentina/Chile 22,211 6,770
Huascarán Andes Peru 22,205 6,768
Llullaillaco Andes Argentina/Chile 22,057 6,723
El Libertador Andes Argentina 22,047 6,720
Cachi Andes Argentina 22,047 6,720
Kailas Himalayas Tibet 22,027 6,714
Incahuasi Andes Argentina/Chile 21,720 6,620
Yerupaja Andes Peru 21,709 6,617
Kurumda Pamirs Tajikistan 21,686 6,610
Galan Andes Argentina 21,654 6,600
El Muerto Andes Argentina/Chile 21,463 6,542
Sajama Andes Bolivia 21,391 6,520
Nacimiento Andes Argentina 21,302 6,493
Illampu Andes Bolivia 21,276 6,485
Illimani Andes Bolivia 21,201 6,462
Coropuna Andes Peru 21,083 6,426
Laudo Andes Argentina 20,997 6,400
Ancohuma Andes Bolivia 20,958 6,388
Cuzco Andes Peru 20,945 6,384
 (Ausangate)      
Toro Andes Argentina/Chile 20,932 6,380
Tres Cruces Andes Argentina/Chile 20,853 6,356
Huandoy Andes Peru 20,852 6,356
Parinacota Andes Bolivia/Chile 20,768 6,330
Tortolas Andes Argentina/Chile 20,745 6,323
Chimborazo Andes Ecuador 20,702 6,310
Ampato Andes Peru 20,702 6,310
El Condor Andes Argentina 20,669 6,300
Salcantay Andes Peru 20,574 6,271
Huancarhuas Andes Peru 20,531 6,258
Famatina Andes Argentina 20,505 6,250
Pumasillo Andes Peru 20,492 6,246
Solo Andes Argentina 20,492 6,246
Polleras Andes Argentina 20,456 6,235
Pular Andes Chile 20,423 6,225
Chañi Andes Argentina 20,341 6,200
McKinley (Denali) Alaska Alaska 20,320 6,194
Aucanquilcha Andes Chile 20,295 6,186
Juncal Andes Argentina/Chile 20,276 6,180
Negro Andes Argentina 20,184 6,152
Quela Andes Argentina 20,128 6,135
Condoriri Andes Bolivia 20,095 6,125
Palermo Andes Argentina 20,079 6,120
Solimana Andes Peru 20,068 6,117
San Juan Andes Argentina/Chile 20,049 6,111
Sierra Nevada Andes Argentina 20,023 6,103
Antofalla Andes Argentina 20,013 6,100
Marmolejo Andes Argentina/Chile 20,013 6,100

1. The 1954 elevation of Everest, 29,028 ft. (8,848 m) was revised on Nov. 11, 1999, and now stands at 29,035 ft. (8,850 m).


2. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan, and China, and the three countries dispute the boundaries.

 
Our solar system has eight planets, and five dwarf planets.

The Eight Planets:

Mercury (insert picture)
The smallest and closest planet to the sun. It is tidally locked to the Sun (keeps the same face towards the Sun at all times).

Venus (insert picture)
Second planet closest to the sun. Venus is covered in a thick layer of clouds due to a runaway green-house effect. The surface temperature is a baking 465C (870F), the hottest surface of any planet in the solar system. Venus rotates backwards to the other planets. The sun comes up in the west and sets in the east.

Earth (insert picture)
The third planet closest to the Sun. Earth is the only planet that has life in our solar system. 71% of Earth surface is covered with water.

Mars (insert picture)
Fourth planet from the Sun. It is known the “Red Planet” because of the presence of iron oxide (rust) in its crust. Mars also has seasons similar to earth because of it tilt (25.19°) is close to that of Earth (23.5°).

Jupiter (insert picture)
The Fifth and the largest planet. It is a gas giant with its atmosphere made up of mostly hydrogen (90%) and helium (10%). Jupiter had 67 moons, which four of them are known as Galilean moons. They were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610.

Saturn (insert picture)
This is the Sixth Planet and Second largest planet. It is a gas giant that has a ring system made up of nine main continuous rings and three discontinuous arcs. Saturn has 62 moons. One which is Titan, Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the solar system to have a substantial atmosphere
.
Uranus (insert picture)
The seventh planet. Uranus is known as an ice giant. Uranus's atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons. Uranus tilt of (97.77°) means that it rotates on its side. Uranus faint rings and moons obit the equator and appear to move in a “north to south” direction.
 
Neptune (insert picture)
The eighth and currently the farthest planet in our solar system. Neptune is an ice giant like its near twin Uranus. Trace amounts of methane give Neptune its blue appearance. Neptune has 14 moons.

The Five Dwarf Planets (insert picture):
Pluto (insert picture)
Formerly known as the ninth planet. Pluto is a dwarf located in the Kuiper belt. Pluto is mainly made up of rock and ice. It is smaller than Earth's Moon. Pluto has five moons; Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered binary systems because the bary center of their orbits do not lie within either body.

Eris (insert picture)
Eris is the second largest dwarf planet and the second farthest object in our solar system. Eris has one moon called Dysnomia.

Ceres (insert picture)
Ceres in located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Ceres is the only dwarf planet identified orbiting entirely within the orbit of Neptune. Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt.

Haumea (insert picture)
Haumea is a dwarf planet beyond Neptune's orbit. Haumea appears to have a triaxial ellipsoid shape resulting from its rapid rotation complicated by tidal interactions with its moons.

Makemake (insert picture)
Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005, and is one of the brightest Kuipter objects. Makemake has one moon.
 
Largest Continent: Asia, 17,212,000 square miles
 
Smallest Continent: Australia, 3,132,000 square miles
 
Highest Mountain: Mount Everest, Himalayan Mountains, Nepal-Tibet, 29,035 feet above sea level
 
Lowest Point on Land: The Dead Sea, Israel-Jordan, water surface 1,349 feet below sea level
 
Deepest Underwater Trench: Mariana Trench, 200 miles southwest of Guam in the Pacific Ocean, 36,198 feet below the ocean surface
 
Largest Sea: The Mediterranean Sea, 1,144,800 square miles
 
Highest Lake: The highest navigable lake is Lake Titicaca in Peru, 12,500 feet above sea level
 
Lowest Lake: The Dead Sea, Israel-Jordan, surface of water 1,349 feet below sea level
 
Largest Lake: Caspian Sea, 152,239 square miles
 
Largest Freshwater Lake: Lake Superior, U.S.-Canada, 31,820 square miles
 
Deepest Ocean: Pacific Ocean, average depth 13,215 feet
 
Largest Ocean: Pacific Ocean, 60,060,700 square miles
 
Smallest Ocean: Arctic Ocean, 5,427,000 square miles
 
Largest Gulf: Gulf of Mexico, 615,000 square miles
 
Largest Bay: The Bay of Bengal, 1,300,000 square miles
 
Largest Island: Greenland, 839,999 square miles
 
Largest Peninsula: Arabia, 1,250,000 square miles
 
Largest Archipelago: Indonesia, 3,500-mile stretch of 17,000 islands
 
Largest Gorge: Grand Canyon, Colorado River, Arizona, U.S., 217 miles long, 4–18 miles wide, 1 mile deep
 
Deepest Gorge: Hells Canyon, Snake River, Idaho, 7,900 feet deep
 
Longest Mountain Range: The Andes of South America, 5,000 miles
 
Longest River: The Nile, Africa, 4,180 miles
 
Shortest River: The Roe, Montana, U.S., 200 feet long
 
Largest River: The Amazon, South America, basin of 2,500,000 square miles
 
Longest Estuary: Ob River, Russia, 550 miles long, up to 50 miles wide
 
Largest Lagoon: Lagoa dos Patos, Brazil, 150 miles long, 4,500 square miles
 
Largest Waterfall: Angel Falls, Venezuela, 3,212 feet high
 
An archipelago is a string of islands.
 

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